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What is polypeptide?
Peptide is a compound formed by connecting α – amino acids with peptide bond, which is the intermediate product of protein hydrolysis. The compound formed by dehydration and condensation of two amino acid molecules is called dipeptide. Similarly, there are tripeptide, tetrapeptide and pentapeptide. Peptides are usually formed by dehydration and condensation of 10-100 amino acid molecules.
Peptide is a compound formed by α – amino acids linked together by peptide bond. It is also an intermediate product of protein hydrolysis.
Generally, the number of amino acids in peptides ranges from two to nine. According to the amount of amino acids in peptides, peptides have different names: compounds formed by dehydration and condensation of two amino acid molecules are called dipeptides. Similarly, there are tripeptides, tetrapeptides, pentapeptides, etc., up to nine peptides. Peptides are usually obtained by dehydration and condensation of 10-100 amino acid molecules. Their molecular weight is less than 10000 Da (Dalton). They can pass through the semipermeable membrane and are not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid and ammonium sulfate. In some literatures, peptides composed of 2-10 amino acids are called oligopeptides (small molecular peptides); peptides composed of 10-50 amino acids are called peptides; peptides composed of more than 50 amino acids are called proteins, in other words, proteins are sometimes called polypeptides. Peptides, also known as peptides, were discovered in the 20th century.
Cytokine mimetic peptide
Screening cytokine mimetic peptides from peptide libraries by using known cytokine receptors has become a hot topic in recent years. A variety of growth factor mimetic peptides, such as human erythropoietin, human thrombopoietin, human growth hormone, human nerve growth factor and interleukin, have been screened abroad. The amino acid sequences of these mimic peptides are different from those of their corresponding cytokines, but they have the activity of cytokines and have the advantages of small molecular weight. These cytokine mimetic peptides are in preclinical or clinical research stage.
Antibacterial active peptide
When insects are stimulated by the external environment, a large number of cationic peptides with antibacterial activity are produced. More than 100 kinds of antimicrobial peptides have been screened out. Experiments in vivo and in vitro show that multiple antimicrobial peptides not only have strong bactericidal ability, but also kill tumor cells.  For example, antimicrobial peptide D screened from silkworm showed good application prospects and could be produced by genetic engineering technology. A 13 amino acid (inkaialakkll) peptide was isolated from snake venom, which had bactericidal activity against G + and G-bacteria.
Peptides for cardiovascular disease
Many herbal medicines have the effects of lowering blood pressure, blood lipid and hemolytic thrombus. They can be used not only as medicine, but also as health food. However, its application is limited due to the uncertainty of its active components. It has been found that many effective ingredients are small molecular polypeptides. For example, the active polypeptides extracted from soybean by Chinese scientists can be directly absorbed through the small intestine, which can prevent and treat thrombosis, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, delay aging and improve the anti-tumor ability of the body. From ginseng, tea, ginkgo leaves and other plants, many small peptides used for cardiovascular disease were also isolated.
Other small medicinal peptides
In addition to the above-mentioned aspects, small peptide drugs have also made some progress in many other fields. For example, Stiernberg found that a synthetic peptide (TP508) peptide can promote the regeneration of wound blood vessels and accelerate the healing of deep skin wounds. Pfister et al. Found that a small peptide (RTR) 4 can prevent alkali injury of corneal inflammatory cells infiltration, inhibit inflammatory reaction. Carron et al. Confirmed that the two synthetic peptides could inhibit the resorption of bone by osteoclasts.
The most important use of peptides in diagnostic reagents is to detect antibodies against viruses, cells, mycoplasma, spirochetes and other microorganisms and parasites such as cysticercosis and Trypanosoma. Peptide antigens are more specific than natural microorganisms or parasite protein antigens, and are easy to prepare. Therefore, the false negative rate and background reaction of the prepared detection reagents are very low, which is easy for clinical application Use. At present, antibody detection reagents assembled with peptide antigens include: A, B, C, g or liver virus, HIV, human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, rubella virus, Treponema pallidum, cysticercosis, Trypanosoma, Lyme disease and rheumatoid. Most of the peptide antigens used are obtained from the natural proteins of the corresponding pathogens, and some of them are new peptides screened from the peptide library.